¿Por qué le llaman "Circo" cuando quieren decir "Anfiteatro"?


Yo, he siempre recomendado a mis clientes, alumnos de hacer la diferencia entre el Coliseo y un templo capitolino, por ejemplo, un teatro y un odeon, o anfiteatro y hipodromo (circo).

Originally posted on Roma no se hizo en un día:

Hace un tiempo, cuando yo iba al colegio -no sé si se seguirá haciendo-, al llegar a dar lo poco que veíamos sobre la cultura romana siempre se nos decía que había tres tipos de edificios de espectáculos: anfiteatro, teatro y circo (estadio).

Un teatro era el sitio en el que se representaban obras teatrales y comienza a ponerse de moda en Roma alrededor de mediados-finales del siglo I a.C.

Un anfiteatro era el edificio, parecido por dimensiones y forma a un estadio de fútbol actual, en el que los gladiadores se daban de leches y se mataban entre sí -a veces-, además de hacer luchas de animales e incluso naumaquias -imitaciones de batallas marítimas-.

Y finalmente, un circo -o estadio- era el sitio donde se hacían carreras de caballos, normalmente en cuádrigas, vamos, a lo "Ben-Hur".

Hasta aquí todo bien…menos cuando trabajas en un museo que es un teatro…

Voir l'original 373 mots de plus

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Le Rijksmuseum d’Amsterdam abritera une grande exposition autour de Carthage avec plus de 300 objets!


Le Rijksmuseum d’Amsterdam abritera une grande exposition autour de Carthage avec plus de 300 objets!

publié le 18/09/2014

Le Rijksmuseum van Oudheden de Leiden, le plus grand et le plus important musée des Pays-Bas situé à Amsterdam, accueillera une exposition qui s’annonce grandiose sur Carthage du 27 novembre 2014 au 10 mai 2015.

Le Rijksmuseum d'Amsterdam abritera une grande exposition autour de Carthage avec plus de 300 objets!

Le Rijksmuseum d'Amsterdam abritera une grande exposition autour de Carthage avec plus de 300 objets!

Jamais les Pays-Bas n’ont abrité une si grande exposition autour de Carthage, une des cités les plus légendaires de l’Antiquité.

L’exposition renfermera plus de 300 objets grâce aux contributions des musées tunisiens mais également du Musée du Louvre et du British Museum.

L’exposition renfermera des mosaïques, des sculptures en marbre et en bronze, des tombes, des bijoux, des objets en verre, des trésors retrouvés suite à des naufrages…

Les galeries d’exposition présenteront l’histoire fascinante et mouvementée de la ville illustrée par les figures carthaginoises historiques et mythiques : la reine Didon, le héros troyen Enée, le chef militaire Hannibal, l’empereur Auguste et le Père de l’Eglise Augustin

Le Rijksmuseum est consacré aux beaux-arts, à l’artisanat et à l’histoire, principalement des Pays-Bas, avec un fonds estimé à environ un million de pièces.

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Rooms in Roman emperor’s house open 2,000 years after death

Published Friday, September 19, 2014 10:03AM EDT
House of Augustus on the Palatine hill in RomeA security man stands inside a room at the House of Augustus

(ROME-AFP) – Lavishly frescoed rooms in the houses of the Roman Emperor Augustus and his wife Livia are opening for the first time to the public Thursday, after years of painstaking restoration.

The houses on Rome’s Palatine hill where the emperor lived with his family are re-opening after a 2.5 million euro ($3.22 million) restoration to mark the 2,000 anniversary of Augustus’s death — with previously off-limit chambers on show for the first time.

From garlands of flowers on Pompeian red backgrounds to majestic temples and scenes of rural bliss, the rooms are adorned with vividly coloured frescoes, many in an exceptional condition.

Restorers said their task had been a complex one, with bad weather during excavation threating the prized relics of a golden era in the Eternal City.

"We had to tackle a host of problems which were all connected, from underground grottos to sewers — and I’m talking about a sewer system stretching over 35 hectares," Mariarosaria Barbera, Rome’s archaeological superintendent, told AFP.

To protect the site, tourists will have to book to join one of three daily groups of up to 20 people who will be taken around by a guide for a 15-minute visit.

Cinzia Conti, head restorer, said the plan was to allow people to enjoy "a more intimate, more attentive exploration of Augustus’s spaces."

It will also mean "we restorers can keep an eye on and evaluate the consequences of the public walking through, for example the dust on their shoes and especially their breath," she said.

Augustus’s decision to build his "domus" near a grotto where Romans worshipped Romulus — one of the twins who legend has it founded Rome — was no coincidence.

- ‘A man of power’ -

The complex was intended to symbolise not only his power but that of his wife and advisor Livia, who is said to have wielded great influence over him and went on to play an important role in Roman politics after his death.

"Looking at the houses, the buildings he had built, we understand he was a man of power, of great strength, who knew what went into making a political man at the head of such a big empire," Conti said.

The frescoes in Livia’s house in particular are one of the most important examples of the period’s style, according to Barbera.

The founder of the Roman Empire was born Caius Octavius in 63 BC on the Palatine hill. The great-nephew of Julius Caesar, he was adopted as his son shortly before the latter was assassinated.

Caius Octavius went on to rule over Rome for 40 years, during which the Republic experienced an era of great wealth and relative peace.

Livia, the love of his life, was his third wife, whom he married when she was pregnant with her first husband’s child. He adopted the baby, Tiberius, who would succeed him after his death.

Augustus died aged 75, after which the Senate raised him to the status of a god and appointed Livia his chief priestess.

As part of the 2,000 year celebrations, the Palatine Museum has dedicated a room to Augustus with objects connected to his life on show.

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The Age of the Sahara desert

A team of scientists from Norway, France and China revise the view that the Sahara desert has existed for only the last 2-3million years.

The Sahara is the earth’s largest subtropical desert. During the last decades, multiple scientific studies have probed its geological and archaeological archives seeking to reveal its history. Despite some crucial breakthroughs, there are still basic questions that lack satisfactory answers.

An example being, how old is the Sahara desert? It is believed by many that the Sahara desert first appeared during the last 2 to 3 million years, however, recent discoveries such as ancient sand dunes and dust records in marine cores push the possible onset of Saharan aridity back in time by several million years. Until now, however, there have been no good explanations for such an early Sahara onset.

The study pinpoints the Tortonian stage (-7-11 million years ago) as an essential period for triggering North African aridity and creating the Sahara desert. Using snapshot simulations with the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) model suite, the international team explored the climate evolution of North Africa through major tectonic shifts over the last 30 million years. They discovered that the region undergoes aridification with the shrinkage of the Tethys– a giant ocean that was the origin of the modern Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas– during the Tortonian.


The simulations are the first to show that the Tethys shrinkage has two main consequences for North African climate. First, it weakens the African summer monsoon circulations and dries out North Africa. Second, it enhances the sensitivity of the African summer monsoon and its associated rainfall to orbital forcing. The Totonian stage thus marks the time when North Africa shifted from permanently lush, vegetated landscape to a landscape experiencing arid/humid cycles on orbital timescales.

Interestingly, these major alterations in North African climate and environment coincide with an important time period for the appearance of early hominids.

The study, led by Zhongshi Zhang from the Bjerkness Centre for Climate Research, Uni Research Climate, was published on Thursday September 18th in Nature. The research team comprises of Gilles Ramstein from Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environement; Mathieu Schuster from Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg; Camille Li from the University of Bergen and the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research; Camille Contoux from the Bjerkness Centre for Climate Research, Uni Research Climate; and Qing Yan from the Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre.



Contributing Source: Uni Research

Header Image Source: Wikimedia

© Copyright 2014 HeritageDaily – Heritage & Archaeology News


September 18th, 2014

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American tourists caught with Pompeii relic

American tourists caught with Pompeii relic

The American tourists allegedly stole an artefact from Pompeii weighing 30kg. Photos: Il Mattino

Published: 16 Sep 2014 10:39 GMT+02:00

The artefact, which would have adorned a building at the site near Naples, was discovered on Monday morning in the tourists’ luggage in their rental car.

They reportedly intended to fly home but were stopped by airport authorities and now faces charges of appropriation of state heritage, Il Mattino said.

When contacted by The Local, airport authorities and police were not able to give further details of the alleged theft.

A spokesman for the American embassy in Rome told The Local that the embassy had not been informed about the case and so had no further details.

The US government’s travel website tells citizens, “while you are traveling in Italy, you are subject to its laws.” In recent months, however, it appears a number of tourists – not only Americans – have chosen to ignore such warnings.

Earlier this year, an American girl in Florence was caught urinating in public, just months after a fellow US citizen broke a Renaissance statue in the Tuscan city.

In March, a Canadian tried to rob a piece of Rome’s Colosseum, while just last month a Frenchman and two Italian women were caught having an orgy in Pompeii.

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Villa of Livia now open to the public

Restored on 2,000th anniversary of emperor’s death
 (foto: ANSA)

(ANSA) – Rome, September 12 – The Villa of Livia, home of the beloved wife and trusted adviser of the Emperor Augustus, has opened its doors to the public after being partially restored to its former splendor on the occasion of the 2,000-year anniversary of the emperor’s death in 14 BC.
"It was the imperial family’s place of rest and relaxation," explained Rome Archeology Superintendent Mariarosaria Barbera of the villa on in the Prima Porta suburb on the outskirts of Rome, which Livia Drusilla (37 BC-14 AD) made her domain after becoming Augustus’ third wife.
Legend has it that Augustus fell in love with Livia at first sight, while he was still married to his second wife, Scribonia, and she was married and six months pregnant.
Augustus divorced his wife, and persuaded Livia’s husband to divorce as well.
The couple married three days after she delivered a son, waiving the traditional waiting period, and remained married for the next 51 years.
The emperor was often on hand to visit Livia at the lovely villa whose famous illusionistic fresco of a garden view, in which all the plants and trees flower and fruit at once, has been removed and is on view in Rome’s Palazzo Massimo. The villa’s alternating mix of architectural and cultivated areas, open and enclosed spaces, would later become the model for Renaissance villas and can still be experienced in its sequence of rooms with sky-blue painted ceilings opening onto an internal garden where Livia grew her famous yellow daisies, fig trees, and herbs for her husband’s tisanes, while hallways decorated in black and white geometric mosaics lead to the thermal baths and the guest rooms, their walls frescoed in Pompeian red.
On the vast terrace overlooking Rome in the distance, restorers have placed 90 potted laurels, for Livia’s villa was famed in antiquity for its laurel grove.
At least a third of the villa remains to be excavated, but funds have run out, officials said.

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Justice and Culture Minister Owen Bonnici this morning said that a Phoenician ship has been located in the central Mediterranean, describing it as a historic event.

The shipwreck is at a depth of 120 metres and is located one mile off the coast of Gozo. It dates back to 700BC.

Dr Bonnici said the boat was most probably around 50 feet long and it could also be the oldest shipwreck in the Mediterranean.

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