Le buste en marbre de l’Empereur romain Marc Aurèle (Marcus Aurelius)

Le buste en marbre de l’Empereur romain Marc Aurèle (Marcus Aurelius) avait été dérobé, en 1996, en même temps que huit autres pièces archéologiques, au Musée de Skikda en Algérie. La cérémonie de restitution de la sculpture en marbre, représentant le buste de l’Empereur romain Marcus Aurelius, dont le vol a été signalé par le Musée de Skikda le 22 décembre 1996, s’est déroulée en présence de l’Ambassadeur d’Algérie aux Etats-Unis, M. Amine Kherbi, de représentants de plusieurs départements ministériels et d’organismes compétents américains, dont le Homeland Security, le Département d’Etat, Interpol, les services de l’immigration et des douanes (US Immigration And Customs Enforcement) ainsi que de responsables de la communauté algérienne du Grand Washington et du représentant de l’Amérique du Nord- Asie-Océanie à l’APN.

Marc Aurèle était un Empereur romain (161-180 après Jésus Christ) et un philosophe stoïcien, né le 26 avril 121, à Rome, et mort le 17 mars 180, au cours d’une bataille à Vindobona (aujourd’hui Vienne, la capitale autrichienne), lit-on dans une des ses biographies. Les autorités algériennes, rappelle-t-on, avaient saisi, début 1997, les services d’Interpol pour le vol de la statue de l’Empereur Marc Aurèle (2eme siècle après J.C), donnant suite à la plainte déposée, en décembre 1996, par le Musée de Skikda, en leur fournissant les informations et références adéquates. Le buste était répertorié au Musée de Skikda sous le numéro 811. Le 16 mars 2004, la trace du buste de l’Empereur romain a été retrouvée à New York. Le 2 juin 2004, la société britannique « The Art Loss Registry », spécialisée dans la recherche des oeuvres d’art, antiquités et objets de valeurs volés, a procédé à l’identification du buste de l’Empereur Marc Aurèle. Cette information a été immédiatement transmise au bureau Interpol de Washington. A son tour la représentation diplomatique algérienne aux Etats-Unis chargera son avocat conseil de suivre l’affaire auprès des autorités américaines qui ont entamé la procédure légale visant à consacrer le droit de propriété de l’Algérie sur la sculpture.

Archéologie 1500 ans d’histoire d’Alger dévoilés à la Place des Martyrs

Des vestiges archéologiques datés du 5e siècle, pour les plus anciens, ont été mis au jour dans le site de fouilles préventives sous l’actuelle Place des Martyrs, emplacement de la future station- musée du métro d’Alger.
Les pavements en mosaïque polychrome de d’une basilique fonctionnelle jusqu’à la fin du 5e siècle sont aujourd’hui dégagés et visibles sur les lieux de fouilles, objet d’une visite d’inspection de la ministre de la Culture, Khalida Toumi, et du wali d’Alger Abdelkader Zoukh.

Entamées en juin 2013, ces fouilles ont également permis de découvrir une vaste nécropole byzantine remontant au 7e siècle ainsi que les vestiges d’un quartier d’artisans forgerons du 12/13e siècle, rasé en 1832 par l’administration coloniale pour ériger la Place du Gouvernement, devenue Place des Martyrs après l’indépendance.

Sur ce site de plus 3.200 m2, les équipes du Centre national de recherches archéologiques (CNRA) et de l’Institut national des recherches archéologiques préventives (INRAP, France) ont découvert les restes démolis de la salle de prière, la cour intérieure et la base du minaret de la mosquée « El Sayida», (antérieure au 16e siècle), elle aussi rasée en 1832. Jouxtant la salle de prière de cette mosquée, d’autres ateliers de ferronnerie, les dallages et trottoirs d’une ancienne voie romaine ainsi que le sol carrelé de «Beyt el Mal» (siège du Trésor publique) dont une partie seulement a été mise au jour.

Ce site devrait contenir, selon les résultats d’une opération de sondage menée sur le terrain de 2009 à 2013, plus de «2000 ans d’histoire d’Alger» enfouis et superposés, remontant jusqu’à 50 ans avant notre ère à l’époque hellénistique de Juba II», a estimé le chef de projet INRAP, François Souq. Les vestiges découverts étaient enfouis à une profondeur de trois mètres, alors que les sondages révèlent que des vestiges se trouveraient jusqu’à «sept mètres de profondeur», a précisé l’archéologue français. Entamées en juin 2013, les fouilles devraient prendre fin en mars 2015» pour laisser place au «travail d’analyse, d’édition et d’habilitation muséale», a indiqué Farid Ighilahriz, directeur du CNRA.

Selon un responsable du métro d’Alger, Tayeb Haouchine, la mise en service de la station-musée de la Place des Martyrs et la livraison de l’espace muséal, devraient intervenir en 2017. Ce concept de station-musée a été inspiré des expériences italienne et surtout grecque: la municipalité d’Athènes, par exemple, avait construit en 2004 une station-musée pour abriter 10.000 pièces d’antiquité découverte sur le tracé de la ligne du métro dans cette ville. 

source: La voix de l’Oranie

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Iran: Archeologists Discover Oldest Known Version of Qur’an

scroll

 

Bandar Abbas| A team of archaeologists excavating the site of an early Islamic sect’s shrine, discovered a bundle of scrolls made of sheepskin, that could contain the oldest Muslim religious texts ever found. According to P.D. Ali Firuzeh, director of the team in charge of the site, the parchments hold a version in the Persian language, of the verses of the Sura Iqra written during the first decade of the Hijra. The writings would have miraculously survived the destruction of  the variant copies of the Qur’an that followed the canonization of the sacred book, a process that ended under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan in 653 AD.

The scrolls hold what seems like a new and slightly different version of the 96th sura or chapter of the Qur’an, believed to have been revealed to Muhammad by God through the Archangel Gabriel at Mecca, in the cave known as Hira, thus beginning the revelation of the Qur’an. One of the most important variations is the choice of language, that suggest it was written before it was decreed by the Caliphat that prayer was to be recited only in Arabic. Therefore, Allah is clearly and repetitively named “Khoda”, a Persian word meaning “Lord” or “Master”, that was also used at the time to describe the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda. The text is associated with a group of early followers of the prophet who would have migrated to Persia and put in writing the teaching of Muhammad to spread his word and convert the local Zoroastrians.

According to traditional history, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia to escape persecution, just before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina, a migration known as the Hijra that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Some evidence found on this new dig site, suggests that some of his followers also went to Persia, where they would have founded a religious community called the Berguzadeguan Khoda or “God’s Chosen ones”. The group was exterminated a few years later, in 651 AD (or year 29 of the Hijri calendar) by the expanding Rashidun Caliphate, after it annexed western Iran. The scrolls however, remained hidden in a decorated pottery jar that was kept in the organization’s secret lair, where they were left in peace for more than 1300 years.

The team of archaeologists who made the discovery, are part of a group of Iranian scientists and historians working for the British Institute of Persian Studies, that proceeded to various excavations around Bandar-Abbas to study some structures from the Sasanian era. The shrine of this previously unknown religious group is for now, the most surprising discovery they made, bringing forward a completely new perception of the early Islamic history.

so, what do you think ?

 

Bandar Abbas| A team of archaeologists excavating the site of an early Islamic sect’s shrine, discovered a bundle of scrolls made of sheepskin, that could contain the oldest Muslim religious texts ever found. According to P.D. Ali Firuzeh, director of the team in charge of the site, the parchments hold a version in the Persian language, of the verses of the Sura Iqra written during the first decade of the Hijra. The writings would have miraculously survived the destruction of  the variant copies of the Qur’an that followed the canonization of the sacred book, a process that ended under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan in 653 AD.

The scrolls hold what seems like a new and slightly different version of the 96th sura or chapter of the Qur’an, believed to have been revealed to Muhammad by God through the Archangel Gabriel at Mecca, in the cave known as Hira, thus beginning the revelation of the Qur’an. One of the most important variations is the choice of language, that suggest it was written before it was decreed by the Caliphat that prayer was to be recited only in Arabic. Therefore, Allah is clearly and repetitively named “Khoda”, a Persian word meaning “Lord” or “Master”, that was also used at the time to describe the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda. The text is associated with a group of early followers of the prophet who would have migrated to Persia and put in writing the teaching of Muhammad to spread his word and convert the local Zoroastrians.

According to traditional history, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia to escape persecution, just before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina, a migration known as the Hijra that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Some evidence found on this new dig site, suggests that some of his followers also went to Persia, where they would have founded a religious community called the Berguzadeguan Khoda or “God’s Chosen ones”. The group was exterminated a few years later, in 651 AD (or year 29 of the Hijri calendar) by the expanding Rashidun Caliphate, after it annexed western Iran. The scrolls however, remained hidden in a decorated pottery jar that was kept in the organization’s secret lair, where they were left in peace for more than 1300 years.

The team of archaeologists who made the discovery, are part of a group of Iranian scientists and historians working for the British Institute of Persian Studies, that proceeded to various excavations around Bandar-Abbas to study some structures from the Sasanian era. The shrine of this previously unknown religious group is for now, the most surprising discovery they made, bringing forward a completely new perception of the early Islamic history.

- See more at: http://worldnewsdailyreport.com/iran-archeologists-discover-oldest-known-version-of-quran/#sthash.scdjvlnf.dpuf

Bandar Abbas| A team of archaeologists excavating the site of an early Islamic sect’s shrine, discovered a bundle of scrolls made of sheepskin, that could contain the oldest Muslim religious texts ever found. According to P.D. Ali Firuzeh, director of the team in charge of the site, the parchments hold a version in the Persian language, of the verses of the Sura Iqra written during the first decade of the Hijra. The writings would have miraculously survived the destruction of  the variant copies of the Qur’an that followed the canonization of the sacred book, a process that ended under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan in 653 AD.

The scrolls hold what seems like a new and slightly different version of the 96th sura or chapter of the Qur’an, believed to have been revealed to Muhammad by God through the Archangel Gabriel at Mecca, in the cave known as Hira, thus beginning the revelation of the Qur’an. One of the most important variations is the choice of language, that suggest it was written before it was decreed by the Caliphat that prayer was to be recited only in Arabic. Therefore, Allah is clearly and repetitively named “Khoda”, a Persian word meaning “Lord” or “Master”, that was also used at the time to describe the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda. The text is associated with a group of early followers of the prophet who would have migrated to Persia and put in writing the teaching of Muhammad to spread his word and convert the local Zoroastrians.

According to traditional history, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia to escape persecution, just before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina, a migration known as the Hijra that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Some evidence found on this new dig site, suggests that some of his followers also went to Persia, where they would have founded a religious community called the Berguzadeguan Khoda or “God’s Chosen ones”. The group was exterminated a few years later, in 651 AD (or year 29 of the Hijri calendar) by the expanding Rashidun Caliphate, after it annexed western Iran. The scrolls however, remained hidden in a decorated pottery jar that was kept in the organization’s secret lair, where they were left in peace for more than 1300 years.

The team of archaeologists who made the discovery, are part of a group of Iranian scientists and historians working for the British Institute of Persian Studies, that proceeded to various excavations around Bandar-Abbas to study some structures from the Sasanian era. The shrine of this previously unknown religious group is for now, the most surprising discovery they made, bringing forward a completely new perception of the early Islamic history.

- See more at: http://worldnewsdailyreport.com/iran-archeologists-discover-oldest-known-version-of-quran/#sthash.scdjvlnf.dpuf

Bandar Abbas| A team of archaeologists excavating the site of an early Islamic sect’s shrine, discovered a bundle of scrolls made of sheepskin, that could contain the oldest Muslim religious texts ever found. According to P.D. Ali Firuzeh, director of the team in charge of the site, the parchments hold a version in the Persian language, of the verses of the Sura Iqra written during the first decade of the Hijra. The writings would have miraculously survived the destruction of  the variant copies of the Qur’an that followed the canonization of the sacred book, a process that ended under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan in 653 AD.

The scrolls hold what seems like a new and slightly different version of the 96th sura or chapter of the Qur’an, believed to have been revealed to Muhammad by God through the Archangel Gabriel at Mecca, in the cave known as Hira, thus beginning the revelation of the Qur’an. One of the most important variations is the choice of language, that suggest it was written before it was decreed by the Caliphat that prayer was to be recited only in Arabic. Therefore, Allah is clearly and repetitively named “Khoda”, a Persian word meaning “Lord” or “Master”, that was also used at the time to describe the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda. The text is associated with a group of early followers of the prophet who would have migrated to Persia and put in writing the teaching of Muhammad to spread his word and convert the local Zoroastrians.

According to traditional history, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia to escape persecution, just before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina, a migration known as the Hijra that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Some evidence found on this new dig site, suggests that some of his followers also went to Persia, where they would have founded a religious community called the Berguzadeguan Khoda or “God’s Chosen ones”. The group was exterminated a few years later, in 651 AD (or year 29 of the Hijri calendar) by the expanding Rashidun Caliphate, after it annexed western Iran. The scrolls however, remained hidden in a decorated pottery jar that was kept in the organization’s secret lair, where they were left in peace for more than 1300 years.

The team of archaeologists who made the discovery, are part of a group of Iranian scientists and historians working for the British Institute of Persian Studies, that proceeded to various excavations around Bandar-Abbas to study some structures from the Sasanian era. The shrine of this previously unknown religious group is for now, the most surprising discovery they made, bringing forward a completely new perception of the early Islamic history.

- See more at: http://worldnewsdailyreport.com/iran-archeologists-discover-oldest-known-version-of-quran/#sthash.scdjvlnf.dpuf

Bandar Abbas| A team of archaeologists excavating the site of an early Islamic sect’s shrine, discovered a bundle of scrolls made of sheepskin, that could contain the oldest Muslim religious texts ever found. According to P.D. Ali Firuzeh, director of the team in charge of the site, the parchments hold a version in the Persian language, of the verses of the Sura Iqra written during the first decade of the Hijra. The writings would have miraculously survived the destruction of  the variant copies of the Qur’an that followed the canonization of the sacred book, a process that ended under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan in 653 AD.

The scrolls hold what seems like a new and slightly different version of the 96th sura or chapter of the Qur’an, believed to have been revealed to Muhammad by God through the Archangel Gabriel at Mecca, in the cave known as Hira, thus beginning the revelation of the Qur’an. One of the most important variations is the choice of language, that suggest it was written before it was decreed by the Caliphat that prayer was to be recited only in Arabic. Therefore, Allah is clearly and repetitively named “Khoda”, a Persian word meaning “Lord” or “Master”, that was also used at the time to describe the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda. The text is associated with a group of early followers of the prophet who would have migrated to Persia and put in writing the teaching of Muhammad to spread his word and convert the local Zoroastrians.

According to traditional history, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia to escape persecution, just before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina, a migration known as the Hijra that marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. Some evidence found on this new dig site, suggests that some of his followers also went to Persia, where they would have founded a religious community called the Berguzadeguan Khoda or “God’s Chosen ones”. The group was exterminated a few years later, in 651 AD (or year 29 of the Hijri calendar) by the expanding Rashidun Caliphate, after it annexed western Iran. The scrolls however, remained hidden in a decorated pottery jar that was kept in the organization’s secret lair, where they were left in peace for more than 1300 years.

The team of archaeologists who made the discovery, are part of a group of Iranian scientists and historians working for the British Institute of Persian Studies, that proceeded to various excavations around Bandar-Abbas to study some structures from the Sasanian era. The shrine of this previously unknown religious group is for now, the most surprising discovery they made, bringing forward a completely new perception of the early Islamic history.

- See more at: http://worldnewsdailyreport.com/iran-archeologists-discover-oldest-known-version-of-quran/#sthash.scdjvlnf.dpuf

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Canales romanos de Las Medulas

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Italy: Excavation of Imperial Forum funded by Azerbaijan

Imperial Forum, Rome

The government of Azerbaijan has reportedly donated 1 million euros (£790,000) to the Italian capital, Rome, so it can begin excavating the city’s Imperial Forum.

The plans, spearheaded by Rome Mayor Ignazio Marino, are to eventually create an archaeological park in the middle of the city by linking the Imperial Forum to other Roman forums built by the emperors Augustus, Caesar, Trajan and Nerva, the Ansa news agency reports.

The donation from Azerbaijan would fund the first phase of the project – digging for artefacts under pedestrian street Via Alessandrina – and connect the Imperial Forum to Trajan’s Forum for the first time. "We believe we’ll find sculptures and key architectural fragments," says city archaeology suprtintendent Claudio Parisi Presicce. Meanwhile, the city will continue fundraising and the mayor says he is in contact with Italian and international philanthropists.

Mayor Marino has made it a priority to preserve Rome’s ancient heritage, and last year he restricted traffic on Via dei Fori Imperiali – a road running from the Imperial Forum to the Colliseum. This year it will be off-limits to cars between 28 June and 31 August.

BBC.

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Villa gallo-romaine de Plassac (33) : elle rouvre après cinq ans de travaux

Surplombant l’estuaire, le site de la villa gallo-romaine a rouvert ses portes au public après cinq années de travaux et le retour des mosaïques

Villa gallo-romaine de Plassac (33) : elle rouvre après cinq ans de travaux
Le plan symétrique était inspiré de celui de la villa des empereurs sur le mont Palatin. © Photo Jérôme Jamet
Cinq ans de travaux pour mettre en valeur cinq siècles d’histoire. La villa gallo-romaine de Plassac, fermée au public en 2009, a rouvert ses portes mardi. D’emblée, le site archéologique qui s’étend sur plus de 5 000 mètres carrés saisit par sa situation géographique, dominant l’estuaire. « L’endroit rappelle les villas romaines de la baie de Naples », commente la guide Brigitte Boulier.La vue spectaculaire sur la Gironde avait dû faire le même effet au riche aristocrate romain Blattius quand, il y a deux mille ans, il a décidé d’y construire sa maison de campagne et d’y développer une vaste exploitation agricole.

Mais ce n’est pas que pour la beauté du site que Blattius a élevé ici sa villa. L’estuaire est alors déjà un axe de communication important pour le commerce. Non loin passe également la voix romaine qui relie Bordeaux, Blaye et Saintes.

Le Conseil général de la Gironde, propriétaire depuis 1984 de la villa, ou plutôt des trois villas qui ont été construites successivement jusqu’au Ve siècle, a entrepris depuis 2009 de restaurer le site pour assurer sa conservation et améliorer les conditions de visite et d’interprétation pour le public.

« L’endroit est encore dans un état brut, il y a les derniers équipements à installer et quelques soucis de corrosion. Mais il est parfaitement visitable. Nous l’ouvrons dès cet été pour tester les visites et finaliser le projet définitif », explique Sylvain Gautier, en charge de la direction de la culture et la citoyenneté au Conseil général.

En cinq ans, les travaux ont permis la construction d’un vaste hall avec mezzanine par lequel on accède au site. La structure métallique donne aux visiteurs une idée des volumes de la villa. D’importants travaux de maçonnerie ont été réalisés pour consolider les bases des murs de chaque pièce. Des plateformes et passerelles permettent désormais au public de circuler sans abîmer les vestiges.

Vingt ans après son départ pour l’atelier de Saint-Romain-en-Gal où elle a été restaurée, la grande mosaïque caractéristique de l’école d’Aquitaine, qui date de la troisième villa, vient de retrouver sa place dans les appartements privés. Les restaurateurs ont pris soin d’y laisser les marques du temps et de la vie quotidienne, comme ces traces noires qui révèlent l’emplacement d’un brasero.

 

La grande mosaïque caractéristique de l’école d’Aquitaine, qui date de la troisième villa, vient de retrouver sa place dans les appartements privés.© Photo Jérôme Jamet

Les vestiges de la villa laissent apparaître d’autres systèmes de chauffage (hypocauste) par le sol ou à l’intérieur des cloisons grâce à des conduits en terre cuite. Pas de doute, les aristocrates romains qui se sont succédé à Plassac savaient vivre. En témoignent encore le belvédère ouvert sur l’estuaire, ou encore ces petits jardins d’apparat où l’eau de source s’écoule encore doucement dans les rigoles antiques. Qu’il devait faire bon se promener à l’ombre de la galerie péristyle… L’entrée de la villa au nord, face à l’estey qui déjà, à l’époque, servait de port, donnait sur un bassin étroit et long de 51 mètres. « Une sorte de miroir d’eau », ose Brigitte Boulier.

La comparaison qui est certaine, c’est le plan de la seconde villa avec celui du palais impérial à Rome. Pour saisir l’ampleur de ce site, une visite au musée de la villa gallo-romaine est indispensable. Tenu par l’association des Amis du vieux Plassac, il propose de nombreuses vitrines thématiques, des objets du quotidien aux éléments de décor.

La reconstitution des peintures murales de la première villa, typique du troisième style pompéien sur fond noir, laisse deviner ici Cupidon, là la Gorgone et, tout en haut, Neptune. À moins que ce ne soit Bacchus.

 

Les mosaïques sont de retour à la villa© Photo Jérôme Jamet

Un film présentant une reconstitution en trois dimensions de la seconde villa, la plus grande, finit de donner aux visiteurs les clés de ce site majeur en Gironde.

Visites guidées. Jusqu’au 30 septembre, tous les jours, de 11 h à 12 h 30 et de 14 h 30 à 16 h 30, puis sur rendez-vous les week-ends d’octobre. Tarif : 2 à 4 euros. Tél. 05 57 42 84 80.

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Iraqis, foreign teams work together to excavate ancient sites

Posted by TANN

The Iraqi Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities on Monday (February 18th) announced it has authorised six foreign teams to start archaeological excavations at a number of ancient sites. 

The walls of Uruk, east of Samawa, were first built 4,700 years ago by the Sumerian King Gilgamesh. More than 40,000 archaeological sites are still untapped [Credit: Essam al-Sudani/AFP]

"As part of its work programme for the current year, the ministry has reached agreements with six archaeological teams from Italy, the United Kingdom and the Czech Republic," Hakim al-Shammary, director of the tourism minister’s media office, told Mawtani. The teams will begin excavations at a number of sites, particularly in the south, he said. "Among the sites to be excavated are ancient hills such as Tal Abu Tuwaira in the city of al-Nasiriya, Tal al-Baqarat in al-Kut and Tal Abu Shathar in Maysan province, as well as other sites in al-Dalmaj marshes," he said. Iraqi archaeologists and excavators will work alongside these teams to acquire additional skills, using advanced equipment to salvage relics and identify historical periods, and learning how to preserve the pieces, al-Shammary said. "The return of foreign archaeology teams to the country, as a result of the stable security situation, will give great momentum to ministry efforts and plans for the excavation of archaeological treasures," he said. Geographic surveys indicate that more than 40,000 archaeological sites throughout Iraq have yet to be excavated and studied, al-Shammary said. The ministry hopes to increase the number of foreign excavation teams, not only so they can support officials through excavation, "but also to help us undertake the special projects of maintaining and rehabilitating archaeological and heritage sites, with their expertise and advanced technologies", he said. Working together New agreements with these teams "come as part of the ministry’s opening up to all the countries that in the past worked alongside Iraq to return stolen pieces" and helped safeguard the country’s archaeological treasures and maintain and develop its museums, said Abbas al-Quraishi, director of the ministry’s artefact recovery department. "Italy, the United States and the United Kingdom were among the first countries to send archaeological teams to Iraq, and helped enrol many Iraqi excavators and archaeologists in training courses to develop their skills," he told Mawtani. "We look forward to increasing their presence on our various archaeological projects," he said. Al-Quraishi said local excavation teams today "have considerable skills in the search and extraction of archaeological pieces, and were able in the past to uncover numerous relics at various sites." One of their most important discoveries involve finding the oldest church in Iraq, whose construction dates to about 120 years before the appearance of Islam, at al-Uqaiser archaeological site in Karbala province, he said. Meanwhile, Hussein al-Sharifi, a member of parliament’s tourism and archaeology committee, told Mawtani it is important to give Iraqi archaeologists the opportunity to take part in exploration and maintenance courses outside the country. "Local archaeological capacities, particularly those in the field of excavation, are considered good," but offering Iraqis the opportunity to train on world-class equipment and devices would be advantageous, he said. 

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